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R D Yee, R W Baloh, S R Marder, D L Levy, S M Sakala, V Honrubia; Eye movements in schizophrenia.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1987;28(2):366-374.
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Smooth pursuit and other eye movements were quantitatively studied in patients with chronic schizophrenia to characterize the pattern and severity of eye movement abnormalities in this disorder. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia, 13 patients with other psychiatric disorders (manic-depressive psychosis, schizoaffective disorder, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder), and 19 normal subjects were studied. Horizontal eye movements were recorded with DC electro-oculography and analyzed by an online computer system. Eye velocity and closed-loop gain of pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), vestibulo-ocular response (VOR) and visual-vestibular interactions were calculated. The latency, accuracy and peak velocity-amplitude relationships of voluntary saccades were measured. The group mean gains of pursuit and OKN of the schizophrenic patients were significantly lower than those of the normal subjects. Suppression of the VOR by fixation was impaired, and the latency of saccades was prolonged. However, the differences in group mean values were small in magnitude, and the frequencies of outliers among the schizophrenic patients were low. The patients with other psychiatric disorders had a similar pattern and severity of eye movement abnormalities. The frequency and severity of eye movement abnormalities in schizophrenic patients are lower than those indicated by previous studies that used different techniques of analysis.
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