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F S Rosenthal, C Phoon, A E Bakalian, H R Taylor; The ocular dose of ultraviolet radiation to outdoor workers.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1988;29(4):649-656.
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Ocular ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed in three occupational groups: fisherman, landscape workers and construction workers. The ratio of ocular exposure to ambient exposure was determined by placing UV-sensitive film (295-320 nm) between the eyes of the subjects and in a nearby open field. The mean ocular exposures varied between 2 and 17% of the ambient exposure on a horizontal surface, depending on whether subjects wore hats, the job performed and the time of year. Wearing a brimmed hat significantly reduced ocular exposure in all groups of subjects. Subjects working over more reflective surfaces had significantly higher ocular exposure. A seasonal effect on the ocular ambient exposure ratio (OAER) was also observed. These results are consistent with measurements of OAER in mannikin and measurements of surface reflectivity in this and previous studies. The results provide parameters which can be used in modeling ocular UVR exposure in epidemiological and clinical studies.
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