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A Kuizenga, N J van Haeringen, A Kijlstra; SDS-Minigel electrophoresis of human tears. Effect of sample treatment on protein patterns.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1991;32(2):381-386.
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An automated Minigel electrophoresis system (PhastSystem, Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) was tested for human tear protein analysis. Tear samples were treated under nonreducing or reducing conditions before sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micro-amounts of tears (2 microliters) were sufficient for analysis and separation and visualization of proteins were completed within 2 hr. Tear proteins were identified using purified control proteins and immunoblotting techniques, using antisera against immunoglobulin (Ig) A (alpha) heavy chains, Ig heavy and light chains, secretory components and lactoferrin. In nonreduced tears, lactoferrin (seen as a double band), serum albumin, tear-specific prealbumin (TSPA), and lysozyme were clearly separated. Secretory IgA (sIgA) was seen as a smear on top of the gel. Immunostaining also showed a major Ig light chain containing protein. After reduction, the protein profiles showed marked changes. In reduced tears, immunoglobulin heavy and light chains (molecular weight [MW]: 64 and 28 kD, respectively) were detected on the SDS-PAGE profile after immunostaining, and represented disulfide cleavage fragments, which originated from sIgA. Reduction resulted in the liberation of the secretory component piece (MW: 85 kD), which was found to co-migrate with the tear lactoferrin bands. Both lactoferrin and serum albumin acted as larger proteins on SDS-PAGE after reduction. The authors found that the two methods of sample treatment, before electrophoresis, resulted in marked differences on the electropherograms.
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