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M W Quick, H M Eggers, R G Boothe; Natural strabismus in monkeys. Convergence errors assessed by cover test and photographic methods.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992;33(10):2986-3004.
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A standard set of clinical prism and cover tests and a recently developed photographic method were used to assess binocular alignment in ten monkeys that previously were determined to have a naturally occurring infantile strabismus. Extensive measurements of the alignment state were made for fixation attempts throughout the field of gaze. Patterns of alignment errors were examined in an attempt to compared the strabismus found in individual monkeys with common syndromes of human infantile strabismus. Two monkeys showed patterns consistent with the syndrome of essential infantile esotropia. Five monkeys had patterns consistent with accommodative esotropia. One monkey that had bilateral anterior chamber hemorrhage at birth had a constant-angle esotropia. One monkey that previously had been shown to have a large-angle esotropia during development exhibited only exophoria, and in a final monkey in which large-angle esotropia was found during development, the strabismus had resolved. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring strabismus in monkeys might be related to syndromes seen in children. In addition, they provide extensive information about other characteristics of strabismus that have not been examined previously. These include a characterization of the magnitude of the misalignment in terms of error surface plots of bias and a detailed analysis of scatter in the measurements that show coupling relationships between the two eyes.
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