August 1993
Volume 34, Issue 9
Articles  |   August 1993
Visual pigment gene changes in adrenoleukodystrophy.
Author Affiliations
  • G H Sack, Jr
    Kennedy-Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • J C Morrell
    Kennedy-Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science August 1993, Vol.34, 2634-2637. doi:
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      G H Sack, J C Morrell; Visual pigment gene changes in adrenoleukodystrophy.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1993;34(9):2634-2637. doi:

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PURPOSE: The gene for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a neurodegenerative disorder, is closely linked to the red/green color pigment genes on the distal X-chromosome Xq28 and one kindred is known to have a genetic change affecting both loci. The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic assessment of the frequency of this situation in many affected kindreds. METHODS: Recombinant DNA probes were used in blot hybridization studies to determine the structure of the color pigment genes in affected males from 59 different adrenoleukodystrophy kindreds. Whenever possible, color vision was measured using the Farnsworth 100-Hue test. RESULTS: Eleven of the 59 kindreds had abnormal color pigment gene clusters; these included fusion genes and changes in gene number. Only one kindred had a deletion of sequences immediately 5' to the color pigment genes. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of color pigment gene changes in our 59 adrenoleukodystrophy kindreds is approximately twice the frequency of defective color vision reported in historic studies but is about the same as that found in studies of the actual genes in large populations. However, the range of changes in the color pigment genes in adrenoleukodystrophy is broader than encountered in most populations. Changes in the highly conserved color pigment genes reflect reorganizations in the Xq28 chromosomal region, some of which involve the contiguous gene for adrenoleukodystrophy.


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