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P Hardy, D Abran, D Y Li, H Fernandez, D R Varma, S Chemtob; Free radicals in retinal and choroidal blood flow autoregulation in the piglet: interaction with prostaglandins.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1994;35(2):580-591.
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PURPOSE: To study the role of free radicals in autoregulation of retinal blood flow (RBF) and choroidal blood flow (ChBF) and the contribution of the cyclooxygenase pathway in free radical formation during blood pressure changes in 1- to 3-day-old pigs. METHODS: Blood pressure was adjusted by inflating balloon-tipped catheters placed at the aortic isthmus and the aortic root to induce hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Blood flow was measured using the microsphere technique. Also, the effects of peroxides on retinal artery diameter were studied on eyecup preparations using time-frame photography processed by digital imaging. RESULTS: Blood gases and intraocular pressure (13 +/- 1 mm Hg) remained stable throughout the experiments. In control animals, RBF was constant only between 30 and 75 mm Hg of ocular perfusion pressure and ChBF increased as a function of ocular perfusion pressure (tau = 0.58, P < 0.01). Inhibition of peroxidation with the free radical scavenger 21-aminosteroid U74389F (2.5 mg/kg) widened the range of RBF and ChBF autoregulation (ocular perfusion pressure from 30 to 131 mm Hg). Hypertension caused an increase in the products of peroxidation, malondialdehyde, and hydroperoxides, as well as in prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in the retina and choroid of control animals; these changes were inhibited by the free radical scavengers U74389F (2.5 mg/kg) and high-dose allopurinol (140 mg/kg) as well as by the cyclooxygenase inhibitors ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg). In isolated eyecup preparations, H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide dilated retinal vessels, and this effect was completely blocked by indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that free radicals play a major role in setting the upper limit of RBF and ChBF autoregulation of the newborn animal. In addition, there exists a positive feedback interaction between free radicals and cyclooxygenase activity in ocular tissues, such that during hypertension the cyclooxygenase pathway is an important producer of free radicals and in turn is also activated by them.
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