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C E Crosson, T Gray; Characterization of ocular hypertension induced by adenosine agonists.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1996;37(9):1833-1839.
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PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that adenosine agonists may induce a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP), a reduction in IOP, or both. Although the reduction in IOP results from the activation of adenosine A1 receptors, the mechanisms responsible for the rise in IOP have not been investigated. This study examines the receptors and mechanisms responsible for the adenosine agonist-induced rise in IOP. METHODS: The ocular effects of the nonselective adenosine agonist NECA, the relatively selective adenosine A2 agonist CV-1808, the A2a agonist CGS-21680, and the A1 agonist R-PIA were evaluated. RESULTS: The topical administration of CV-1808 produced a rapid rise in IOP, with a maximum increase of 15.6 +/- 1.6 mm Hg. Dose-response curves demonstrated that each agonist produced a dose-related rise in IOP with the following rank order of potency: NECA > CV-1808 > > R-PIA = CGS-21680. At times corresponding to the rise in IOP, the administration of high doses of CV-1808 (165 micrograms) produced a significant increase in aqueous humor flow and protein concentration. Increases in IOP and aqueous humor protein levels induced by CV-1808 were blocked by pretreatment with the adenosine A2 antagonist DMPX. In vitro studies demonstrated that CV-1808 did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate production in the rabbit iris-ciliary body. In cats, topical administration of CV-1808 produced a rapid rise in IOP, with a maximum increase of 8.1 +/- 2.4 mm Hg and an ED50 of 73 +/- 2.9 micrograms. This rise in IOP was blocked by DMPX pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that adenosine receptor agonists can induce an acute rise in IOP in rabbits and cats. On the basis of pharmacologic characteristics, the rise in IOP is consistent with the activation of ocular adenosine A2 receptors. Functional studies indicate that at high doses, this rise in IOP involves an increase in aqueous flow and the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier.
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