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T Mühlberg, H J Heberling, W Joba, H D Schworm, A E Heufelder; Detection and modulation of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist messenger ribonucleic acid and immunoreactivity in Graves' orbital fibroblasts.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1997;38(5):1018-1028. doi: https://doi.org/.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
PURPOSE: To analyze the expression and regulation of intracellular and soluble interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in orbital fibroblasts and to determine whether a disbalance between IL-1 receptor agonist and antagonist may promote IL-1 mediated proinflammatory actions in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). METHODS: Early passages of cultured orbital fibroblasts (OFs) derived from four patients with active GO and six control subjects were examined for their baseline expression of the two variants of IL-1RA, intracellular IL-1RA (icIL-1RA) and soluble IL-1ra (sIL-1RA. In addition, modulation of icIL-1RA and sIL-1RA was studied after exposure of OF to a broad range of cytokines as well as to nonspecific stimulating agents such as lipopolysaccharide and phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate. The IL-1RA gene and protein variants were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemical staining, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: At baseline, both GO- and control OF showed low levels of constitutive icIL-1RA ribonucleic acid and absence of sIL-1RA ribonucleic acid expression. Exposure to various cytokines stimulated icIL-1RA and sIL-1RA gene expression in both groups, but generally to markedly lower levels in GO-OF compared to that of control OF (P < 0.01). Analysis of IL-1RA protein expression showed low levels of constitutive IL-1RA immunoreactivity (22 kDa) in cell lysates and absence of sIL-1RA immunoreactivity in culture supernatants derived from both GO-OF and control OF. Interleukin-1-alpha was capable of inducing expression of two variants (23 and 26 kDa) of IL-1RA immunoreactivity in supernatants, derived from control OF, and to a lesser degree, GO-OF (P < 0.01). Quantitative analysis showed markedly lower abundance of IL-1RA immunoreactivity in cell lysates and supernatants derived from GO-OF monolayers compared to that detected in control OF (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate differences in regulation of icIL-1RA and sIL-1RA and markedly lower levels of expression in cultured GO-OF compared to normal OF. Failure to generate, upon cytokine stimulation, sufficient quantities of icIL-1RA and sIL-1RA to balance agonist stimulation of the IL-1 receptor may facilitate IL-1-dependent proinflammatory and fibrogenic actions within the orbital tissue in GO.
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