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C W McLaughlin, D Peart, R D Purves, D A Carré, A D Macknight, M M Civan; Effects of HCO3- on cell composition of rabbit ciliary epithelium: a new model for aqueous humor secretion.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1998;39(9):1631-1641.
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PURPOSE: To determine whether the Na+-K+-2Cl- symport or the parallel Na+/H+ and Cl-/HCO3- antiports provide the dominant pathway for NaCl uptake into the ciliary epithelium. Both pathways are known to support NaCl entry from the stroma into the pigmented ciliary epithelial (PE) cells, after which Na+ and Cl- diffuse across the gap junctions into the nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells and are released into the aqueous humor. METHODS: Rabbit iris ciliary bodies were preincubated in HCO3-/CO2-containing or HCO3-/CO2-free solutions before quick freezing, cryosectioning, dehydration, and electron probe x-ray microanalysis. RESULTS: The NPE and the PE cells contained more K and Cl when incubated with bicarbonate. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase with 0.5 mM acetazolamide had little effect in HCO3--free medium but prevented the increase in Cl in both cell types in HCO3-/CO2 solution. Inhibition of the Na+-K+-2Cl- symport with 10 to 500 microM bumetanide caused Cl loss from both cell types in HCO3--free solution, but bumetanide produced a paradoxical increase in Cl and Na in HCO3-/CO2 solution. Together, acetazolamide and bumetanide resulted in significant Cl loss in HCO3--free solution and prevented the gains of Cl and Na in HCO3-/CO2 solution. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that the dominant entry pathway of NaCl from the stroma into the ciliary epithelial syncytium is through an acetazolamide-inhibitable Cl-/HCO3 and a parallel Na+/H+ antiport. The dominant release pathways into the aqueous humor appear to be a Na+-K+-2Cl-symport, which can be outwardly directed under physiological conditions, together with the Na+/K+-exchange pumps and Cl- channels.
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