May 1999
Volume 40, Issue 6
Free
Articles  |   May 1999
Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children.
Author Affiliations
  • K Zadnik
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240, USA.
  • D O Mutti
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240, USA.
  • H S Kim
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240, USA.
  • L A Jones
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240, USA.
  • P H Qiu
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240, USA.
  • M L Moeschberger
    College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1240, USA.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 1999, Vol.40, 1050-1060. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      K Zadnik, D O Mutti, H S Kim, L A Jones, P H Qiu, M L Moeschberger; Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999;40(6):1050-1060.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

PURPOSE: An association between tonic accommodation, the resting accommodative position of the eye in the absence of a visually compelling stimulus, and refractive error has been reported in adults and children. In general, myopes have the lowest (or least myopic) levels of tonic accommodation. The purpose in assessing tonic accommodation was to evaluate it as a predictor of onset of myopia. METHODS: Tonic accommodation was measured in children enrolled in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia using an infrared autorefractor (model R-1; Canon, Lake Success, NY) while children viewed an empty lit field or a dark field with a fixation spot projected in Maxwellian view. Children aged 6 to 15 years were measured from 1991 through 1994 (n = 714, 766, 771, and 790 during the 4 years, successively). Autorefraction provided refractive error and tonic accommodation data, and videophakometry measured crystalline lens curvatures. RESULTS: Comparison of the two methods for measuring tonic accommodation shows a significant effect of age across all years of testing, with the lit empty-field test condition yielding higher levels of tonic accommodation compared with the dark-field test condition in children aged 6 through 11 years. For data collected in 1994, mean (+/-SD) tonic accommodation values for the lit empty-field condition were significantly lower in myopes, intermediate in emmetropes, and highest in hyperopes (1.02 +/- 1.18 D, 1.92 +/- 1.59 D, and 2.25 +/- 1.78 D, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001; between-group testing shows each group is different from the other two). Age, refractive error, and Gullstrand lens power were significant terms in a multiple regression model of tonic accommodation (R2 = 0.18 for 1994 data). Lower levels of tonic accommodation for children entering the study in the first or third grades were not associated with an increased risk of the onset of myopia, whether measured in the lit empty-field test condition (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.75, 1.08), or the dark-field test condition (relative risk = 0.83; 95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.14). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document an association between age and tonic accommodation. The known association between tonic accommodation and refractive error was confirmed and it was shown that an ocular component, Gullstrand lens power, also contributed to the tonic accommodation level. There does not seem to be an increased risk of onset of juvenile myopia associated with tonic accommodation.

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