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Clifford R. Weir, Marie Cleary, Stuart Parks, Gordon N. Dutton; Spatial Localization in Esotropia: Does Extraretinal Eye Position Information Change?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(12):3782-3786.
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purpose. To investigate the accuracy of spatial localization in children with a
specific type of convergent strabismus, fully accommodative esotropia.
methods. Two groups of children, with right and left fully accommodative
esotropia, respectively, pointed at targets located centrally and
eccentrically on a computer touchscreen without being able to see their
hands. The size and the direction of the horizontal pointing responses
were recorded under two conditions: when their eyes were aligned
(wearing spectacles) and when they were squinting (not wearing
spectacles). A group of children without strabismus but with
hypermetropia were assessed as controls.
results. For both fully accommodative groups, the pointing responses to the
central target shifted in the direction of the nonsquinting eye when
deviations were manifest. No difference was found for the eccentric
targets. No difference was found for the hypermetropia group with any
conclusions. These results are consistent with an alteration in the extraretinal eye
position information (efference copy, extraocular muscle
proprioception, or both) that is used in spatial
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