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David M. Sherry, Ellen Townes-Anderson; Rapid Glutamatergic Alterations in the Neural Retina Induced by Retinal Detachment. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(9):2779-2790. doi: https://doi.org/.
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purpose. Retinal detachment induces neurochemical changes in the neural retina
over a span of days to weeks. However, little information is available
on the acute response in the retina to detachment.
methods. Distribution of the neurotransmitters glutamate, glycine, andγ
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the metabolic amino acids aspartate
and glutamine was examined immunocytochemically from 5 to 30 minutes
and at 3 hours after retinal detachment in a salamander eyecup
results. Glutamate showed a rapid depletion from neuronal cell bodies in
detached retina, whereas Müller cells, which normally sequester
and metabolize glutamate, showed increased immunolabeling for
glutamine. Changes occurred exclusively in detached retinal regions of
the eyecup. Aspartate, a precursor for glutamate synthesis, also showed
decreased labeling in neuronal cell bodies in detached retinal regions,
although these changes were not as striking as those observed for
glutamate. In contrast, the distributions of the inhibitory amino acid
neurotransmitters glycine and GABA were not affected appreciably by
acute retinal detachment.
conclusions. These results indicate that retinal detachment induces rapid, localized
alterations in the glutamatergic system of the neural retina that are
consistent with a massive efflux of neuronal glutamate and concomitant
alterations in glutamate metabolism. An acute efflux of neuronal
glutamate in detached retina could contribute to excitotoxicity and to
the initiation of structural alterations and changes in gene
expression; it is also consistent with reported neurochemical changes
associated with longer term retinal
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