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Seang-Mei Saw, Wei-Han Chua, Ching-Ye Hong, Hui-Min Wu, Wai-Ying Chan, Kee-Seng Chia, Richard A. Stone, Donald Tan; Nearwork in Early-Onset Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2002;43(2):332-339.
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purpose. To determine the relationship of nearwork and myopia in young
elementary school-age children in Singapore.
methods. A cross-sectional study of 1005 school children aged 7 to 9 years was
conducted in two schools in Singapore. Cycloplegic autorefraction,
keratometry, and biometry measurements were performed. In addition, the
parents completed a detailed questionnaire on nearwork activity (books
read per week, reading in hours per day and diopter hours [addition of
three times reading, two times computer use, and two times video games
use in hours per day]). Other risk factors, such as parental myopia,
socioeconomic status, and light exposure history, were assessed.
results. In addition to socioeconomic factors, several nearwork indices were
associated with myopia in these young children. The multivariate
adjusted odds ratio of higher myopia (at least −3.0 D) for children
who read more than two books per week was 3.05 (95% confidence
interval [CI], 1.80–5.18). However, the odds ratios of
higher myopia for children who read more than 2 hours per day or with
more than 8 diopter hours (1.50; 95% CI, 0.87–2.55 and 1.04; 95% CI,
0.61–1.78, respectively) were not significant, after controlling for
conclusions. Children aged 7 to 9 years with a greater current reading exposure were
more likely to be myopic. This association of reading and myopia in a
young age cohort was greater than the strength of the reading
association generally found in older myopic subjects. Whether these
results identify an association of early-onset myopia with nearwork
activity or other potentially confounding factors is
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