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Tien Yin Wong, Paul J. Foster, Joscelin Hee, Tze Pin Ng, James M. Tielsch, Sek Jin Chew, Gordon J. Johnson, Steve K. L. Seah; Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors in Adult Chinese in Singapore. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2000;41(9):2486-2494.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
purpose. To determine the epidemiology of refractive errors in an adult Chinese
population in Singapore.
methods. A disproportionate, stratified, clustered, random-sampling procedure
was used to select names of 2000 Chinese people aged 40 to 79 years
from the 1996 Singapore electoral register in the Tanjong Pagar
district in Singapore. These people were invited to a centralized
clinic for a comprehensive eye examination, including refraction.
Refraction was also performed on nonrespondents in their homes. Myopia,
high myopia, and hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent (SE)
in the right eye of less than −0.5 D, less than −5.0 D, and more than+
0.5 D, respectively. Astigmatism was defined as less than −0.5 D of
cylinder. Anisometropia was defined as a difference in SE of more than
1.0 D between the two eyes. Only phakic eyes were analyzed.
results. From 1717 eligible people, 1232 (71.8%) were examined. Adjusted to the
1997 Singapore population, the overall prevalence of myopia, hyperopia,
astigmatism, and anisometropia was 38.7% (95% confidence interval[
CI]: 35.5, 42.1), 28.4% (95% CI: 25.3, 31.3), 37.8% (95% CI:
34.6, 41.1), and 15.9% (95% CI: 13.5, 18.4), respectively. The
prevalence of high myopia was 9.1% (95% CI: 7.2, 11.2), with women
having significantly higher rates than men. The age pattern of myopia
was bimodal, with higher prevalence in the 40 to 49 and 70 to 81 age
groups and lower prevalence between those age ranges. Prevalence was
reversed in hyperopia, with a higher prevalence in subjects aged 50 to
69. There was a monotonic increase in prevalence with age for both
astigmatism and anisometropia. Increasing educational levels, higher
individual income, professional or office-related occupations, better
housing, and greater severity of nuclear opacity were all significantly
associated with higher rates of myopia, after adjustment for age and
conclusions. The results indicate that whereas myopia is 1.5 to 2.5 times more
prevalent in adult Chinese residing in Singapore than in similarly aged
European-derived populations in the United States and Australia, the
sociodemographic associations are similar.
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