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William A. Hare, Hau Ton, Guadalupe Ruiz, Barbara Feldmann, Mercy Wijono, Elizabeth WoldeMussie; Characterization of Retinal Injury Using ERG Measures Obtained with both Conventional and Multifocal Methods in Chronic Ocular Hypertensive Primates. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2001;42(1):127-136.
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purpose. To characterize, using both conventional and multifocal
electroretinogram (ERG) recordings as well as histologic measures,
retinal injury in the chronic ocular hypertensive primate model for
methods. Ocular hypertension was induced in the right eye of 7 cynomolgous
monkeys, Macaca fascicularis, using laser injury to the
aqueous outflow tissue at the anterior chamber angle. At 16 months
after IOP elevation, ERG recordings were made from both eyes of all
animals using both conventional and multifocal methods. After
electrophysiological recording, animals were killed and retinal samples
were radially sectioned for histologic analysis.
results. Histologic measures showed that ocular hypertensive injury was largely
or completely limited to a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The
degree of RGC loss was similar in central and peripheral retina.
Amplitudes of conventional ERG responses were mostly unaffected in eyes
having severe loss of RGCs, a finding that is consistent with limited
injury to photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and amacrine cells. Peaks in
both the first- and second-order multifocal ERG responses were
attenuated in ocular hypertensive eyes, and amplitude of these peaks
was highly correlated with the density of surviving RGCs.
conclusions. The results are consistent with a conclusion that both first- and
second-order components of the multifocal ERG response from the monkey
reflect a significant contribution from activity in RGCs and may
provide a useful measure for the clinical diagnosis and management of
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