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Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Matthias Zenkel, Ulrich Decking, Daniela Haubs, Friedrich E. Kruse, Anselm Jünemann, Miguel Coca-Prados, Gottfried O. H. Naumann; Selective Upregulation of the A3 Adenosine Receptor in Eyes with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(6):2023-2034. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.04-0915.
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purpose. Adenosine is increasingly released in metabolic stress conditions, like hypoxia or ischemia, and regulates many physiologic processes, such as aqueous humor secretion and intraocular pressure, via activation of four adenosine receptors. In the current study, the role of the adenosine system in the pathophysiology of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, which is typically associated with anterior chamber hypoxia and elevated intraocular pressure, was examined.
methods. RT-PCR, Northern hybridization, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were applied to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of the adenosine receptor subtypes A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 in anterior segment tissues of PEX eyes, without and with glaucoma, in comparison to eyes with primary open-angle or angle-closure glaucoma and normal control eyes. Real-time PCR was used to study the effect of hypoxia and oxidative stress on adenosine receptor expression by nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells in vitro. Levels of adenosine and its catabolites inosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine were measured in cell culture supernatants and aqueous humor samples by HPLC.
results. All four adenosine receptor subtypes (A2A > A1 > A2B > A3) were coexpressed but differently distributed in the ciliary epithelium of control eyes, with the A3 receptor being localized to the basolateral membrane infoldings of the nonpigmented epithelial cells. A selective, approximately 10-fold upregulation of A3 receptor mRNA and protein was consistently found in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium of all PEX eyes, with and without glaucoma, compared with the normal and glaucomatous control eyes. Significant upregulation of A3 receptor message in nonpigmented epithelial cells was induced by both hypoxia and oxidative stress in vitro, together with increased levels of inosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine in the supernatants. Levels of adenosine and its catabolites, however, were not significantly elevated in the aqueous humor of patients with PEX.
conclusions. Considering the known role of the A3 adenosine receptor in modulating aqueous humor secretion, its selective, probably hypoxia-induced upregulation in the ciliary epithelium may not only confer cytoprotection but also influence aqueous humor dynamics and may be accessible to therapeutic intervention in patients with PEX.
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