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Jason J. Nichols, Corrie Ziegler, G. Lynn Mitchell, Kelly K. Nichols; Self-Reported Dry Eye Disease across Refractive Modalities. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(6):1911-1914. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-1294.
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purpose. To compare self-reported dry eye disease across contact lens wearers, spectacles wearers, and clinical emmetropes (i.e., those not requiring refractive correction).
methods. The survey included two symptom questions (dryness and light sensitivity) that inquired about frequency and intensity at three times of day (morning, afternoon, and evening) and a self-perception question (i.e., Do you think you have dry eyes?). Dryness and light sensitivity scales were then calculated, summed, and scored, providing a dry eye classification. Logistic regression (binary and multinomial) and analysis of covariance were used to examine the relation between mode of refractive correction and dry eye status, frequency of symptoms, and diurnal change in symptom intensity.
results. Overall, 893 surveys were completed, and the age-adjusted frequency of dry eye in the sample was 28.7%, with 3.5% of the sample reporting severe symptoms (at least grade 4 of a possible 5 for both symptoms). Contact lens wearers were most likely to report dry eye disease (52.3%), followed by spectacle wearers (23.9%) and clinical emmetropes (7.1%). Adjustment for age and gender showed that contact lens (adjusted odds ratio = 12.37, 95% confidence interval = 7.55–20.26) and spectacle wearers (adjusted odds ratio = 2.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.12–3.80) were more likely than emmetropes to report dry eye problems. After adjustment for age and gender, contact lens wearers were shown to be more likely to experience frequent symptoms and an increase in symptoms throughout the day (F = 51.4, P < 0.0001).
conclusions. The frequency of self-reported dry eye is high, especially in contact lens wearers.
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