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Lisa A. Ostrin, Adrian Glasser; Effects of Pharmacologically Manipulated Amplitude and Starting Point on Edinger-Westphal–Stimulated Accommodative Dynamics in Rhesus Monkeys. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(1):313-320. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0380.
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purpose. The aim of this study was to determine whether pharmacologically manipulated resting refraction, amplitude, and starting point affect accommodative and disaccommodative dynamics in anesthetized adolescent rhesus monkeys.
methods. Pilocarpine and atropine were applied topically to manipulate resting refraction, accommodative amplitude, starting point, and end point in two monkeys with permanent electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Accommodation was centrally stimulated with submaximal and maximal current amplitudes. Dynamic accommodative responses were measured with infrared photorefraction before and during the course of action of the drugs. Accommodative and disaccommodative dynamics were analyzed in terms of peak velocity as a function of amplitude, starting point, and end point.
results. Pilocarpine caused a myopic shift in resting refraction of 11.62 ± 1.17 D. Centrally stimulated accommodative amplitude was 10.08 ± 1.15 D before pilocarpine and 0.68 ± 0.29 D after pilocarpine. Changes were found in accommodative dynamics as a function of starting point and in disaccommodative dynamics as a function of amplitude and end point. Accommodative amplitude was 11.25 ± 0.18 D before atropine administration and 0.52 ± 0.11 D after atropine administration. Accommodative dynamics as a function of amplitude were not substantially altered during the course of pilocarpine-induced accommodation or atropine-induced cycloplegia.
conclusions. Accommodative response amplitude is reduced with pilocarpine by shifting the eye to a more myopic state and with atropine by cycloplegia. Pharmacologic manipulations showed that accommodative and disaccommodative dynamics in anesthetized monkeys depend on amplitude, starting point, and end point of the response and on the contributions of neural and receptor activity.
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