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Paul E. Milbury, Brigitte Graf, Joanne M. Curran-Celentano, Jeffrey B. Blumberg; Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Anthocyanins Modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 and Glutathione S-Transferase-pi Expression in ARPE-19 Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(5):2343-2349. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-0452.
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purpose. To determine whether anthocyanin-enriched bilberry extracts modulate pre- or posttranslational levels of oxidative stress defense enzymes heme-oxygenase (HO)-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.
methods. Confluent ARPE-19 cells were preincubated with anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin phenolic fractions of a 25% enriched extract of bilberry (10−6–1.0 mg/mL) and, after phenolic removal, cells were oxidatively challenged with H2O2. The concentration of intracellular glutathione was measured by HPLC and free radical production determined by the dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay. HO-1 and GST-pi protein and mRNA levels were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively.
results. Preincubation with bilberry extract ameliorated the intracellular increase of H2O2-induced free radicals in RPE, though H2O2 cytotoxicity was not affected. By 4 hours, the extract had upregulated HO-1 and GST-pi protein by 2.8- and 2.5-fold, respectively, and mRNA by 5.5- and 7.1-fold, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Anthocyanin and nonanthocyanin phenolic fractions contributed similarly to mRNA upregulation.
conclusions. Anthocyanins and other phenolics from bilberry upregulate the oxidative stress defense enzymes HO-1 and GST-pi in RPE, suggesting that they stimulate signal transduction pathways influencing genes controlled by the antioxidant response element.
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