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Hetian Lei, Peter Hovland, Gisela Velez, Aaron Haran, Debra Gilbertson, Tatsuo Hirose, Andrius Kazlauskas; A Potential Role for PDGF-C in Experimental and Clinical Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(5):2335-2342. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0965.
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purpose. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a disorder characterized by the formation of cellular membranes on both surfaces of the retina and within the vitreous cavity. It occurs in 5% to 10% of patients who undergo retinal reattachment surgery. In the rabbit model of the disease, the platelet-derived growth factor α receptor (PDGFRα) is dramatically more capable of promoting PVR than is closely related PDGFRβ. To test the ligand hypothesis (i.e., that this phenomenon can be explained by a predominance of PDGFRα-specific ligands) this study was conducted to determine the profile of PDGF ligands expressed by cells that induce PVR and in the vitreous of rabbits that have PVR. In addition, we examined which PDGF isoforms were present in the vitreous of patients with PVR, to assess the relevance of the rabbit model to the clinical setting.
methods. PDGF isoforms were detected and quantified by Western blot analysis and ELISA. An assay was performed of conditioned medium from mouse embryo fibroblasts expressing the PDGFRα (Fα) and rabbit conjunctival fibroblasts (RCFs), both of which cause PVR in the experimental model, and from human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Because PDGF-C is secreted in a latent form and must be proteolytically processed to become biologically active, a PDGF-C processing assay was established, and conditioned medium was tested from these cells lines, for processing activity. Vitreous specimens, from control and PVR rabbits and from patients undergoing vitrectomy surgery, either to repair retinal detachment or for other reasons, were also tested for PDGF isoforms and for PDGF-C processing activity.
results. PDGF isoforms that activate PDGFRβ (PDGF-B and -D) were either undetectable or were present at very low levels in all the samples tested. Relatively low levels of PDGF-A and -AB were detected, whereas PDGF-C was the predominant isoform. Fα, RCFs, and ARPE-19 cells accumulated PDGF-C in the conditioned medium at an average rate of 2.0 ± 0.2, 2.9 ± 0.3, and 71.3 ± 6.0 ng/mL per day, respectively. Although there was no detectable PDGF-C in the vitreous of control rabbits (n = 8), there was an average of 1784 ± 1150 ng/mL latent PDGF-C in the vitreous from rabbits with PVR (n= 14). Of the patients with PVR, eight of nine contained PDGF-C (range, 50–1000 ng/mL). In contrast, PDGF-C was detected in only 1 of 16 of the patients without PVR. In both conditioned medium and vitreous samples, the latent (instead of the active) form of PDGF-C was detected, even though processing activity was present in all the samples tested.
conclusions. The predominance of PDGF isoforms that activate PDGFRα support the ligand hypothesis as an explanation of why PDGFRα is more capable of inducing PVR than is PDGFRβ. Furthermore, the profile of PDGF isoforms observed in the rabbit model accurately reflected the clinical specimens from patients with PVR. Finally, these findings implicate one of the new PDGF family members as an important contributor to experimental and clinical PVR.
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