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Dianne H. Glass, Cynthia J. Roberts, Alan S. Litsky, Paul A. Weber; A Viscoelastic Biomechanical Model of the Cornea Describing the Effect of Viscosity and Elasticity on Hysteresis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(9):3919-3926. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-1321.
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purpose. To develop a method for evaluating viscosity and elasticity of the cornea and to examine the effect that both properties have on hysteresis.
methods. A three-component spring and dashpot model was created in Simulink in Matlab to represent the purely elastic and viscoelastic behavior of the cornea during a measurement using device called an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Values for elasticity and viscosity were varied while sinusoidal stress was applied to the model. The simulated stresses were used to determine how hysteresis is affected by the individual components of elasticity, viscosity, and maximum stress. To validate the model, high-speed photography was used to measure induced strain in a corneal phantom during ORA measurement. This measured strain was compared with the strains simulated by the model.
results. When the spring in the viscoelastic portion of the model was stiffened, hysteresis decreased. When the spring in the purely elastic element was stiffened, hysteresis increased. If both springs were stiffened together, hysteresis peaked strongly as a function of the viscosity of the viscoelastic element. Below the peak value, lower elasticity was associated with higher hysteresis. Above the peak value, higher elasticity was associated with higher hysteresis. In addition, hysteresis increased as the air maximum pressure was increased. Measurements from phantom corresponded to predictions from the model.
conclusions. A viscoelastic model is presented to illustrate how changing viscosity and elasticity may affect hysteresis. Low hysteresis can be associated with either high elasticity or low elasticity, depending on the viscosity, a finding consistent with clinical reports.
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