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Chandrasekar Durairaj, Stephen J. Kim, Henry F. Edelhauser, Jaymin C. Shah, Uday B. Kompella; Influence of Dosage Form on the Intravitreal Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(10):4887-4897. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-3565.
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purpose. To prepare a suspension form of diclofenac and compare the influence of the injected form (suspension versus solution) on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in Dutch belted pigmented rabbits.
methods. Diclofenac acid was prepared and characterized in a suspension formulation. Rabbit eyes were injected with either diclofenac sodium solution (0.3 mg) or diclofenac acid suspension (10 mg) prepared in 0.1 mL balanced salt solution. Rabbits were killed at regular time intervals, the eyes enucleated, and drug content quantified in the vitreous humor and retina-choroid tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic models were developed for both the dosage forms, and simulations were performed for different doses.
results. Diclofenac acid with an approximate 5-μm particle size exhibited 3.5-fold lower solubility in vitreous humor, when compared with its sodium salt. The estimated settling velocity of the suspension in the vitreous humor was 3 cm/h. After diclofenac sodium salt solution injection, drug levels declined rapidly with no drug levels detectable after 24 hours in the vitreous humor and 4 hours in the RC. Throughout the assessed time course, drug levels were higher in the vitreous. However, sustained, high drug levels were observed in both the vitreous humor and the retina-choroid even on day 21 after diclofenac acid suspension injection, with retina-choroid drug levels being higher beginning at 0.25 hour. The elimination half-life of diclofenac suspension was 24 and 18 days in vitreous and retina-choroid, respectively, compared to 2.9 and 0.9 hours observed with diclofenac sodium. The pharmacokinetic models developed indicated a slow-release distribution or depot compartment for the diclofenac acid suspension in the posterior segment. Simulations indicated the inability of a 10-mg dose of diclofenac sodium solution to sustain drug levels in the vitreous beyond 11 days.
conclusions. By choosing a less soluble form of a drug such as diclofenac acid, vitreous elimination half-life can be prolonged up to 24 days, potentially resulting in therapeutic levels in the posterior segment tissues for a few months. Higher detectable drug levels in the retina-choroid suggest rapid settling and persistent retention of suspension in retina-choroid tissue.
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