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Trivendra Tripathi, Ashley Dawn Smith, Mahshid Abdi, Hassan Alizadeh; Acanthamoeba-Cytopathic Protein Induces Apoptosis and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells by cPLA2α Activation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(13):7973-7982. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10436.
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We have shown that Acanthamoeba interacts with a mannosylated protein on corneal epithelial cells and stimulates trophozoites to secrete a mannose-induced 133 kDa protease (MIP-133), which facilitates corneal invasion and induces apoptosis. The mechanism of MIP-133–induced apoptosis is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if MIP-133 induces apoptosis and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) pathway.
HCE cells were incubated with or without MIP-133 at doses of 7.5, 15, and 50 μg/mL for 6, 12, and 24 hours. The effects of cPLA2α inhibitors on cPLA2α, arachidonic acid (AA) release, and apoptosis were tested in vitro. Inhibition of cPLA2α involved preincubating HCE cells for 1 hour with cPLA2α inhibitors (10 μM methyl-arachidonyl fluorophosphonate [MAFP] or 20 μM arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone [AACOCF3]) with or without MIP-133 for 24 hours. Expression of cPLA2α mRNA and enzyme was examined by RT-PCR and cPLA2 activity assays, respectively. Apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells was determined by caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation assays. Expression of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA.
MIP-133 induced significant cPLA2α (approximately two to four times) and AA release (approximately six times) from corneal cells while cPLA2α inhibitors significantly reduced cPLA2α (approximately two to four times) and AA release (approximately three times) (P < 0.05). cPLA2α inhibitors significantly inhibited MIP-133–induced DNA fragmentation approximately 7 to 12 times in HCE cells (P < 0.05). MIP-133 specifically activates cPLA2α enzyme activity in HCE cells, which is blocked by preincubation with anti–MIP-133 antibody. In addition, MIP-133 induced significant IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ production, approximately two to three times (P < 0.05).
MIP-133 interacts with phospholipids on plasma membrane of HCE cells and activates cPLA2α. cPLA2α is involved in apoptosis, AA release, and activation of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines from HCE cells. cPLA2α inhibitors may be a therapeutic target in Acanthamoeba keratitis.
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