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Antje Wurm, Ianors Iandiev, Susann Uhlmann, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Reichenbach, Andreas Bringmann, Thomas Pannicke; Effects of Ischemia–Reperfusion on Physiological Properties of Müller Glial Cells in the Porcine Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(6):3360-3367. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6901.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Transient retinal ischemia–reperfusion is associated with neuronal degeneration and activation of Müller glial cells. Reactive gliosis may impede the homeostatic functions of Müller cells. A viable animal model for human ischemic events should display similarities in eye size and retinal blood supply. Therefore, pigs were used in this investigation of physiological alterations in Müller cells after ischemia–reperfusion.
Transient retinal ischemia was induced in young adult pigs by high intraocular pressure in one eye for 1 hour. After 3 days of reperfusion, the retinal tissue and isolated Müller cells were used for osmotic swelling recordings, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, Ca2+ microfluorimetry, and immunohistochemistry.
Müller cells in retinal slices from postischemic eyes but not control cells displayed a significant swelling of the somata when osmotic stress was applied by hypotonic extracellular solution. The amplitude of K+ inward currents was significantly reduced (∼60% of the control value). This decrease was accompanied by a depolarization of the cell membrane. The number of Müller cell end feet displaying a Ca2+ increase after application of adenosine 5′-triphosphate was increased in the ischemic retina. Moreover, reactive Müller cell gliosis was characterized by an (increased) expression of vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, the phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, and the transcription factor c-fos.
The alterations of reactive Müller cells after transient ischemia of the pig eye were similar to those found in rat and rabbit models, demonstrating that the porcine retina is a suitable model for the investigation of ischemic injury.
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