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Audrey Cougnard-Grégoire, Marie-Noëlle Delyfer, Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Florence Malet, Mélanie Le Goff, Jean-François Dartigues, Joseph Colin, Pascale Barberger-Gateau, Cécile Delcourt; Long-Term Blood Pressure and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The ALIENOR Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2013;54(3):1905-1912. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10192.
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To explore the association of AMD with long-term average blood pressure (BP) parameters, including pulse pressure (PP).
The ALIENOR study is a population-based study on age-related eye diseases in 963 residents of Bordeaux, France, aged 73 years or older. AMD was graded from nonmydriatic color retinal photographs, in three exclusive stages: no AMD (1015 eyes), large soft distinct drusen and/or large soft indistinct drusen and/or reticular drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities (early AMD, 276 eyes), and late AMD (66 eyes). BP parameters were measured at four occasions over a 7-year period. PP was defined as systolic BP minus diastolic BP. Associations of AMD with BP parameters were estimated using generalized estimating equation logistic regressions. Statistical analyses included 702 subjects (1357 eyes) with complete data.
After adjustment for age, sex, educational level, smoking, body mass index, plasma HDL and LDL cholesterol, CFH Y402H, ApoE2, ApoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, elevated PP was significantly associated with an increased risk of late AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37 for a 10-mm Hg increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.82). Associations were similar for late atrophic and late neovascular AMD (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01–1.92, P = 0.04, and OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.90–2.23, P = 0.13, respectively). Association with early AMD was in the same direction but did not reach statistical significance (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98–1.28). Early and late AMD were not significantly associated with systolic or diastolic BP, hypertension, or use of antihypertensive medications.
This study suggests that high PP may be associated with increased risk for AMD.
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