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Donald O. Mutti, Margaret E. Cooper, Ecaterina Dragan, Lisa A. Jones-Jordan, Melissa D. Bailey, Mary L. Marazita, Jeffrey C. Murray, Karla Zadnik, the CLEERE Study Group; Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and Group-Specific Component (GC, Vitamin D–Binding Protein) Polymorphisms in Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(6):3818-3824. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6534.
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Epidemiologic evidence indicates that time outdoors reduces the risk of myopia, suggesting a possible role for vitamin D. This case–control study was conducted to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within VDR at 12q13.11 and GC at 4q12-13 are associated with myopia.
The primary analysis was conducted on 81 white adult control subjects between 18 and 50 years of age with a spherical equivalent refractive error between +0.50 and +2.00 D in both eyes and less than 1.50 D of astigmatism. Affected myopic subjects were 289 unrelated white adults at least 18 years of age with at least −0.75 D myopia in both principal meridians of both eyes.
One SNP within VDR was significantly associated with myopia in the multivariate analysis of the primary sample (rs2853559: odds ratio = 1.99, P = 0.003). In a subsample of less severely myopic white subjects between −0.75 and −4.00 D, three SNPs within VDR were significantly associated in a multivariate model after adjustment for multiple comparisons (rs2239182: odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.007; rs3819545: odds ratio = 2.34, P = 0.003; rs2853559: odds ratio = 2.14, P = 0.0035), accounting for 12% of model variance over age alone.
Polymorphisms within VDR appear to be associated with low to moderate amounts of myopia in white subjects. Future studies should determine whether this finding can be replicated and should explore the biological significance of these variations with respect to myopia.
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