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Shi Song Rong, Yi Peng, Yuan Bo Liang, Di Cao, Vishal Jhanji; Does Cigarette Smoking Alter the Risk of Pterygium? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(10):6235-6243. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-15046.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To determine the association of cigarette smoking with pterygium.
Potentially eligible studies published from the year 1946 to December 28, 2013 were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, and reference lists. All studies that evaluated smoking as an independent factor for pterygium were identified. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were combined using the random-effects model when P < 0.1 in the test for heterogeneity, or otherwise the fixed-effects model was used. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis, and evaluation of potential biases were undertaken. The ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of smoking as an associated factor for pterygium were analyzed.
We included 24 articles incorporating 95,279 participants from 20 cross-sectional studies, 2 hospital-based case-control studies, and 2 population-based cohort studies. The combined OR of cigarette smoking (current or ever smoked) for risk of pterygium was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69–0.97; P = 0.025). The results remained consistent among current smokers (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61–0.76; P = 4.57 × 10−12), but not in ex-smokers (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87–1.27; P = 0.59). The impact of ultraviolet light (UV) exposure (P = 0.082) and sex (P = 0.553) on the effect of smoking was insignificant in meta-regression. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the protective effect and nonrelevance of these two study-level variables. Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test showed minimal publication bias.
The results of this meta-analysis show that cigarette smoking was associated with a reduced risk of pterygium, especially in current smokers. This effect may be independent of UV exposure and sex. Investigations are needed to unveil its molecular basis serving therapeutic purposes.
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