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Sudha Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K. Swamynathan; SLURP-1 Modulates Corneal Homeostasis by Serving as a Soluble Scavenger of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(10):6251-6261. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-15107.
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Our previous study revealed the immunomodulatory property of the secreted lymphocyte antigen (Ly6)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-related protein-1 (SLURP1), abundantly expressed in the cornea and associated with the hyperkeratotic disorder Mal de Meleda. Here, we test the hypothesis that SLURP1 modulates the functions of membrane-tethered uPAR by acting as a soluble scavenger of its ligand urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA).
Human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) and mouse corneal stromal fibroblast MK/T-1 cells were employed to examine the effect of SLURP1 on cell proliferation and migration. Human corneal limbal epithelial cell clones stably expressing SLURP1 under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were generated using lentiviral vectors. Recombinant 6× His-mouse Slurp1 and maltose-binding protein (MBP)-mouse uPA were expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified using nickel-ion and amylose columns, respectively. Slurp1 interaction with uPA was detected using ligand blots, ELISA, pull-down assays, and immunofluorescent staining.
Stable expression of SLURP1 in HCLE cells was confirmed by immunoblots and immunofluorescent staining. Human corneal limbal epithelial and MK/T-1 cell proliferation and migration rates were suppressed by exogenous SLURP1. Ligand blots, ELISA, and pull-down assays indicated that Slurp1 efficiently interacts with uPA. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that exogenous SLURP1 decreased the amount of cell surface–bound uPA in the leading edges of migrating cells. In gap-filling assays, wild-type HCLE cells responded to uPA by increasing their velocity and closing larger area, while the SLURP1-expressing HCLE cells failed to do so.
SLURP1 modulates corneal homeostasis by serving as a soluble scavenger of uPA and regulating the uPA-dependent functions of uPAR.
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