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C A Johnson, J L Keltner, M A Krohn, G L Portney; Photogrammetry of the optic disc in glaucoma and ocular hypertension with simultaneous stereo photography.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1979;18(12):1252-1263.
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Stereophotogrammetric evaluations of the optic cup were performed for normal, ocular hypertensive, and glaucomatous eyes. Average volume, area, and depth measurements were progressively larger from normal to ocular hypertensive to glaucomatous eyes, although the distributions of individual values exhibited considerable overlap among the three groups. Similar results were obtained for volume, area, and depth asymmetry between each pair of eyes. None of these measurements was able to distinguish accurately between normal and glaucomatous optic cups. However, normal eyes showed a high correlation (r = +0.85) between area and depth of the optic cup, whereas this area/depth relationship was reduced in ocular hypertensives (r = +0.63) and completely broke down for glaucomatous eyes (r = +0.04). Approximately 89% of the glaucomatous eyes and 47% of the ocular hypertensive eyes were beyond the range of normal area/depth correlation values. These findings represent an improvement over most previous attempts to quantitatively differentiate between normal and glaucomatous eyes on the basis of optic disc measurements alone, and support the hypothesis that optic disc damage usually precedes visual field loss in glaucoma. With further technical refinements such as computer image processing, stereophotogrammetry of the optic cup may become a valuable differential diagnostic technique for glaucoma.
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