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I J Constable, D H Slatter, R Horne; Chorioretinal biopsy in dogs.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1980;19(6):603-609.
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A simplified practical technique for biopsy of retina and choroid has been developed in dogs. A 270 degree circular scleral flap of 3 mm diameter is raised. The risks of chorioretinal bleeding and vitreous loss are greatly reduced by intravenous mannitol and controlled hyperventilation, with hyperoxygenation and transient, systemic hypotension under general anesthesia. Rreasonable ultrastructural detail was preserved in chorioretinal specimens of 1 mm diameter. Repeat biopsies in the same eye are feasible without significant complications.
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