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M R Malinow, L Feeney-Burns, L H Peterson, M L Klein, M Neuringer; Diet-related macular anomalies in monkeys.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1980;19(8):857-863. doi: https://doi.org/.
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Fundus color photographs and retinal fluorescein angiograms were obtained from 48 nonhuman primates of three macaque species. Yellow pigmentation of the macula was present in monkeys fed a standard laboratory diet containing xanthophylls but was absent in animals maintained on semipurified or liquid formula diets with no xanthophyll content. Plasma levels of xanthophylls ranged from 0.5 to 2.4 microliters/ml in monkeys receiving the standard diet but were undetectable in animals raised on semipurified or liquid formula diets. Fluorescein angiograms revealed foveal areas of hyperfluorescence in almost all monkeys; however, the degree of hyperfluorescence was significantly greater in monkeys maintained on the semipurified or liquid formula diets.
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