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B S Kwon, L P Gangarosa, K D Burch, J deBack, J M Hill; Induction of ocular herpes simplex virus shedding by iontophoresis of epinephrine into rabbit cornea.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1981;21(3):442-449.
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Ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shedding from the latently infected rabbit was induced by iontophoresis of 0.01% epinephrine into the eye. The iontophoresis of epinephrine was at 0.8 mAmp for 8 min once a day for 3 consecutive days. Shedding was determined by the presence of HSV-1 in the tear film obtained with eye swabs. Unilateral epinephrine iontophoresis performed 60 days after inoculation of the virus resulted in ipsilateral HSV-1 shedding in all cases (7/7). Bilateral epinephrine iontophoresis performed on selected days during 170 to 365 days after inoculation resulted in HSV-1 shedding in 75% of the eyes (21/28) and 100% of the rabbits (14/14). All shedding was initiated within 3 days after the third treatment with epinephrine iontophoresis. The shedding frequency induced by epinephrine iontophoresis was significantly higher (pb less than 0.05) than that induced by the other methods employed. HSV-1 was detected in one or both cocultivated explants of trigeminal and superior cervical ganglia for every eye in all experimental groups, indicating that all eyes had the potential to shed. In conclusion, epinephrine iontophoresis induced ocular HSV-1 shedding reliably and with a high frequency in the latently infected rabbits. Furthermore, we suggest that this easily reproducible model of viral shedding offers a system for studying the factors involved in recurrent HSV-1 ocular infections.
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