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D E Willey, M D Trousdale, A B Nesburn; Reactivation of murine latent HSV infection by epinephrine iontophoresis.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1984;25(8):945-950.
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Iontophoresis of epinephrine into the cornea of previously infected mice was used in an attempt to induce reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the trigeminal ganglia. BALB/c mice infected with HSV-1 strain McKrae following corneal scarification developed a latent infection of the trigeminal ganglia within 15 days. At 28 days postinfection, mice were subjected to a 3-day cycle of iontophoresis of epinephrine (0.01%) into the cornea. Ocular shedding of HSV occurred in 16/23 (70%) of stimulated mice; these animals did not shed HSV in the 3-day period prior to iontophoresis. Spontaneous shedding of HSV, however, was noted in 3/97 (3%) mice not subjected to epinephrine iontophoresis. "Infectious" virus was isolated only from the trigeminal ganglia of stimulated mice, whereas "latent" virus was isolated from the trigeminal ganglia of both stimulated and nonstimulated mice. All virus isolates were verified to be HSV by neutralization with a known HSV-1 antiserum. This ocular system thus allows for the study of the full spectrum of latent HSV infections, including latency, ganglionic reactivation, and peripheral virus shedding.
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