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S P Bartels; Aqueous humor flow measured with fluorophotometry in timolol-treated primates.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1988;29(10):1498-1504.
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Anterior chamber aqueous humor flow rate was measured in unanesthetized owl monkeys using fluorophotometry and anterior chamber photogrammetry. The mean anterior chamber turnover constant (ko) was 0.01, the mean aqueous humor flow rate was 2.75 microliters min-1, and the mean anterior chamber volume was 317 microliters in 16 eyes of eight monkeys. A significantly lower (11%, P less than 0.002) flow rate was measured in the afternoon compared to flow rates measured in the morning. This diurnal cycle is analogous to the fluctuations in flow in humans and supports the hypothesis that aqueous humor formation in primates is regulated by endogenous mechanisms. To investigate the role of adrenergic mechanisms in regulating flow, the dose-response effect of topical timolol (0.5-100 micrograms) was measured. Five microliters drops were used to minimize systemic absorption. Lower concentrations (0.01% and 0.05%) caused sporadic changes in flow. Topical 0.1% timolol (5 micrograms) significantly decreased aqueous humor flow in the treated eye compared to baseline flow while flow in the contralateral eye was not significantly different from baseline flow. Higher concentrations of timolol (0.5% and 1%) caused a dose-related bilateral decrease in flow. These results indicate that even with small topical volumes systemic absorption of the higher concentrations of timolol occurs. Significant local inhibition of flow occurred following 5 micrograms of topical timolol whereas an equal bilateral decrease in flow occurred following a 100 microgram dose. These results suggest that the standard clinical dose (approximately equal to 100 micrograms) is supramaximal for decreasing aqueous flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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