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J J Kremers, D van Norren; Retinal damage in macaque after white light exposures lasting ten minutes to twelve hours.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1989;30(6):1032-1040.
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We induced photochemical damage in small parts of the retinas of anesthetized macaques after light exposures of varying intensity, lasting between 10 min and 12 hr. Damage was assessed both with funduscopy and densitometry at several periods after exposure. Damage was most extensive 2 days post-exposure, with similar thresholds for both methods. Reciprocity between exposure time and irradiance was found for all exposures at a threshold irradiant dose of 230 J/cm2. This is in good agreement with part of the literature data on monkeys, yet contradicts another report (Sykes et al) in which a much lower threshold dose was found. The latter data probably concern a different class of damage. It remains unclear what critical factors distinguish the two classes. Observations more than 70 days post-exposure show a divergence between funduscopic and densitometric thresholds. Although the appearance of funduscopic lesions had changed, the threshold dose remained 230 J/cm2. Densitometry showed full recovery of the amount of visual pigment for doses below 600 J/cm2.
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