Purchase this article with an account.
M W Quick, R G Boothe; Measurement of binocular alignment in normal monkeys and in monkeys with strabismus.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1989;30(6):1159-1168.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Accurate assessment of ocular alignment in monkeys is difficult because typical clinical methods require extensive cooperation by the subject or provide only a rough estimate of the misalignment. Recently, Brodie derived a geometrical model for determining the Hirschberg ratio in humans, and validated it photographically. In this study, we have applied these procedures in order to determine corresponding values for monkeys. We have found the average Hirschberg ratio for macaques to be approximately 14 degrees of rotation per millimeter corneal light reflex displacement. We extended the model to binocular viewing conditions, which allows for a description of the visual axes in Cartesian coordinates in relation to the head. Fixation errors, computed in terms of lateral and axial error vectors from intended fixation targets, were then determined for one normal monkey and for three monkeys that have a naturally occurring strabismus. Assessment of the fixation errors was made at several different distances and angles in the horizontal plane. The standard deviation for our measurements averaged 2.1 degrees. Our data indicate that measurements must be made at multiple locations throughout the visual field in order to accurately specify the pattern of misalignment. Finally, a procedure is demonstrated which specifies the misalignment in terms of a cyclopian eye, which is independent of the interocular separation.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only