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H A Sen, B A Berkowitz, N Ando, E de Juan; In vivo imaging of breakdown of the inner and outer blood-retinal barriers.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992;33(13):3507-3512.
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Real-time contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to distinguish between experimentally induced breakdown of the vascular (inner) and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE; outer) blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in vivo. Pigmented rabbits were treated with intravenous sodium iodate 30 mg/kg, (a specific RPE cell poison), intravitreal N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) 10(-3) mol/l (which specifically disrupts the vascular BRB), or retinal diode laser photocoagulation. Coronal T1-weighted proton images were acquired in a timed sequence after intravenous injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Images were analyzed to localize leakage of Gd-DTPA and determine the permeability surface area product normalized per unit area (PS). The pattern of enhancement observed in eyes treated with sodium iodate differed clearly from that in eyes treated with NECA. PS' values were significantly higher in eyes treated with sodium iodate than with NECA. Simultaneous leakage from the outer and inner BRB in eyes treated with dense retinal laser photocoagulation could be localized and quantitated independently.
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