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A L Church, M Barza, J Baum; An improved apparatus for transscleral iontophoresis of gentamicin.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992;33(13):3543-3545.
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The authors previously found that positively charged substances are less well-transported into the vitreous humor by transscleral iontophoresis than are negatively charged substances. There was more bubble formation in the eye cup with positively charged than with negatively charged substances. The authors hypothesized that these bubbles might account for the poorer conductance of the positively charged species by causing interruptions of the current. Therefore, the authors developed a modified eye cup in which the diameter of the fluid column was larger than that in the old device (1.0 rather than 0.5 mm). This modification allowed larger voltage to be applied than with the older device, because bubbles could be more easily cleared from the conjunctiva than with the narrower-bore eye cup. Although the efficiency of the apparatus was the same with the two eye cups (micrograms per milliliter in vitreous humor divided by milliampere minutes of current applied), vitreal concentrations of gentamicin with the modified eye cup were fourfold higher than with the older eye cup (83 versus 19 micrograms/ml; P < 0.001). These studies suggest that modifying the eye cup to permit easier removal of bubbles resulted in improved delivery of gentamicin into the ocular humors.
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