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M Rosenfield, K J Ciuffreda, G K Hung; The linearity of proximally induced accommodation and vergence.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1991;32(11):2985-2991.
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This study sought to determine the linearity and amplitude of both proximally induced accommodation (PIA) and vergence (PIV) by comparing the open-loop accommodation and vergence responses, respectively, to individual stimuli located at viewing distances ranging from 0.20 m to 1,500 m. For the measurement of PIA, the vergence and accommodation loops were opened by subjects (N = 10) monocularly viewing the target through a 0.5-mm pinhole, while accommodation was assessed concurrently using an infrared optometer. In the assessment of PIV, the accommodation loop was opened either by subjects (N = 10) viewing a low-frequency difference of Gaussian (DOG) grating or by viewing the targets binocularly through 0.5-mm pinholes. For both PIV methods, the vergence loop was opened by vertical dissociating prisms while the heterophoria was assessed for the various target distances using the von Graefe technique. The results demonstrated significant changes in both PIA and PIV for stimuli located closer than 3 m. However, both proximal components attained a minimum level and remained constant for targets at or beyond 3 m. Furthermore, the magnitudes of PIA and PIV were linearly related to the target distance measured in diopters and meter angles, respectively. These findings clearly demonstrate the influence of target proximity on the oculomotor system.
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