August 1992
Volume 33, Issue 9
Articles  |   August 1992
Lateral phoria at distance: contributions of accommodation.
Author Affiliations
  • D A Owens
    Whitely Psychology Laboratories, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003.
  • R A Tyrrell
    Whitely Psychology Laboratories, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science August 1992, Vol.33, 2733-2743. doi:
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      D A Owens, R A Tyrrell; Lateral phoria at distance: contributions of accommodation.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992;33(9):2733-2743.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Lateral heterophoria at distance often is cited as an index of tonic vergence, yet recent research has shown that vergence in darkness is more convergent than most measures of phoria. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possible role of accommodation in this discrepancy. Experiment I compared measures of distance phoria of 19 young adults with measures of vergence and accommodation of the same subjects. Dark vergence was found to be correlated with but significantly more convergent than distance phoria. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that individual measures of phoria were related to subjects' negative accommodation (from the dark focus to the distant target) as well as to dark vergence. Experiment II tested 13 young adults to evaluate three simple models of the influence of accommodation on distance phoria. Distance phoria was predicted best by a model that included the subjects' negative accommodation, accommodative vergence, and dark vergence. These findings support the hypothesis that distance phoria is influenced by accommodation for the fixation target. Dark vergence is a simpler index of tonic vergence.


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