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A Shimizu-Matsumoto, W Adachi, K Mizuno, J Inazawa, K Nishida, S Kinoshita, K Matsubara, K Okubo; An expression profile of genes in human retina and isolation of a complementary DNA for a novel rod photoreceptor protein.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1997;38(12):2576-2585.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
PURPOSE: To characterize expression patterns of active genes in human retina, and to isolate novel genes that are uniquely expressed in this tissue. METHODS: A 3'-directed complementary DNA (cDNA) library that faithfully represents the composition of messenger RNA (mRNA) was constructed with an mRNA preparation from a cadaveric human retina. A total of 925 3' terminal sequences were collected by sequencing randomly selected clones, of which 789 were regarded as representing chromosomally coded genes (gene signatures [GS]). GS were compared with each other and searched against GenBank. The resulting expression profile, listing gene species and their frequency, represents the composition of mRNA in the retina. By comparing this expression profile with those obtained from 10 other source cells or tissues, genes uniquely active in the retina were discovered, including some not previously described. A full-sized cDNA corresponding to one of these was isolated and sequenced. Its expression was analyzed by multitissue Northern hybridization and in situ hybridization to the retina specimen. It was then mapped on human chromosomes. RESULTS: In the expression profile, 108 genes were detected recurrently, suggesting that they are very active. Fifty-five of them were identified in GenBank, including the most abundant opsin gene and several other genes for phototransduction. Among the remaining novel and active genes, 19 were considered unique to retina on the basis of their representation status in other expression profiles and in dbEST. One of these was identified as a gene that encodes a novel secretory protein expressed in a rod photoreceptor that maps to chromosome 18p11.3. CONCLUSIONS: The expression profile of active genes in the retina represents the composition of mRNA, which reflects the relative activities of genes in this tissue. A comparison of this expression profile with those obtained with other tissues resulted in isolation of a novel cDNA specifically expressed in the rod photoreceptor. It is anticipated that additional novel genes that are uniquely active in the neural retina may be obtained with the same strategy, leading to further clarification of the biologic or physiological characteristics of this tissue.
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