February 1999
Volume 40, Issue 2
Free
Articles  |   February 1999
Neuropsychological impairment-associated visual field deficits in HIV infection. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center.
Author Affiliations
  • D J Plummer
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
  • T D Marcotte
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
  • P A Sample
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
  • T Wolfson
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
  • R K Heaton
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
  • I Grant
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
  • W R Freeman
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0946, USA.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science February 1999, Vol.40, 435-442. doi:
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      D J Plummer, T D Marcotte, P A Sample, T Wolfson, R K Heaton, I Grant, W R Freeman; Neuropsychological impairment-associated visual field deficits in HIV infection. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999;40(2):435-442.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between loss in peripheral visual sensitivity and neuropsychological functioning in seropositive patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without infectious retinopathy. METHODS: Subjects carefully screened for retinal disease and well-matched across demographic and medical variables were grouped according to normal (perimetry-nl) versus abnormal (perimetry-abnl) performance on achromatic automated perimetry and short-wavelength automated perimetry, standard clinical ophthalmologic measures of visual function. All subjects completed a detailed neuropsychological test battery and were classified as impaired or unimpaired, globally and across eight neurocognitive domains. Subjects were also classified according to whether they met diagnostic criteria for minor cognitive/motor disorder (MCMD) or HIV-associated dementia (HAD). RESULTS: Visual field loss was associated with lower performance in the abstraction, perceptual-motor, learning, and motor domains. Significant group differences were also found on numerous individual neuropsychological tests. Based on clinical ratings, we found deficits in learning and motor functioning. No perimetry-nl subjects met criteria for MCMD or HAD, whereas 32% of perimetry-abnl subjects met diagnostic criteria for syndromic cognitive disorders (five MCMD and one HAD). In a subset of subjects who underwent a lumbar puncture, there was a trend for the perimetry-abnl group to have a higher concentration of beta2 microglobulin, a marker for central nervous system immune activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that in some HIV-infected people reduced visual function may be caused by nonretinal disease, and perimetry may present a sensitive measure of HIV-related brain dysfunction.

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