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X C Wang, C Jobin, J B Allen, W L Roberts, G J Jaffe; Suppression of NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in human RPE cells by a proteasome inhibitor.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1999;40(2):477-486.
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PURPOSE: To determine whether nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is activated in human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells in response to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) alone or in combination and if so, whether expression of proinflammatory genes induced by these agents can be blocked by a proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, which inhibits the degradation of I kappaB, an NF-kappaB inhibitor, thereby preventing nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. METHODS: Cultured hRPE were pretreated for 60 minutes with medium alone or medium containing the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 (20 microM) and then exposed to TNF-alpha (1.1 x 10(3) U/ml), IL-1beta (5 U/ml), or IFN-gamma (7.5 x 10(3) U/ml) alone or in combination (TII). Nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB was determined by fluorescence staining of the NF-kappaB Rel A (p65) subunit. Cytoplasmic I kappaB protein was measured by western blot analysis. Nuclear extract binding to kappaB DNA motifs was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and antibody supershift assay. Steady state mRNA expression of the chemokines melanoma growth stimulating activity (MGSA)/gro-alpha, regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), the cytokines IL-1beta and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Chemokine and cytokine protein secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell-surface ICAM-1 expression was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and TII but not IFN-gamma alone caused degradation of I kappaB, Rel A nuclear translocation, and increased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity, effects that were blocked by pretreatment with MG-132. MG-132 suppressed MGSA/gro-alpha, RANTES, MCP-1, IL-1beta, M-CSF, and ICAM-1 mRNA expression and secreted RANTES, MCP-1, and M-CSF protein, and cell-surface ICAM-1 that were induced by IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and TII. CONCLUSIONS: TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and TII induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ICAM-1 in hRPE cells through an NF-kappaB-dependent signal transduction pathway. This effect is blocked by MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor that prevents I kappaB degradation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB may be a useful strategy to treat proliferative vitreoretinopathy and uveitis, ocular diseases initiated and perpetuated by cytokine activation.
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