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Stephen A. K. Harvey, Eric G. Romanowski, Kathleen A. Yates, Y. Jerold Gordon; Adenovirus-Directed Ocular Innate Immunity: The Role of Conjunctival Defensin-like Chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC) and Phagocytic Human Defensin-α. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(10):3657-3665. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0438.
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purpose. Adenovirus (Ad), a major cause of viral conjunctivitis worldwide, is controlled initially by the innate immune response on the ocular surface. In the present study, cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells were used to identify host genes responsive to infection by a clinical isolate of Ad5, and the antiviral activity of some of their peptide products was investigated.
methods. Primary human conjunctival epithelial cells in culture were infected with Ad5 at high (1.0), low (0.1), or zero (0.0) multiplicities of infection (MOI) and harvested at different times after infection (1.5, 6, and 16 hours). Host gene expression was profiled with oligonucleotide microarrays (GeneChips; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Peptide products of interest were tested for antiviral activity in direct inhibition assays against respiratory serotypes (Ad3, Ad5), ocular serotypes (Ad8, Ad19), and HSV-1.
results. At high MOI, viral infection suppressed the interferon (IFN)-mediated host antiviral response seen at low MOI. At 16 hours after infection, 63 unique characterized transcripts were identified that were robustly and significantly suppressed by high MOI, (i.e., MOI [0.1]/MOI [0.1] ≥ 2, P < 0.006). Of these, 29 (46%) transcripts are involved in IFN signaling or are IFN or virus induced. This subset included CXCL10 and CXCL11, encoding IP-10 and I-TAC, respectively. These defensin-like chemokines and human α-defensin-1 directly inhibited Ad3 and Ad5 but not Ad8 or Ad19.
conclusions. In response to low-level Ad5 infection, conjunctival epithelial cells showed upregulation of IFN-associated genes. The peptide products of two of these, IP-10 and I-TAC, are directly active against Ad3, and IP-10 is active against Ad5. The ocular tropism of Ad8 and Ad19 may be due in part to their resistance to these defensin-like chemokines.
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