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Eva M. Kniep, Cora Roehlecke, Nurdan Özkucur, Alexander Steinberg, Friedemann Reber, Lilla Knels, Richard H. W. Funk; Inhibition of Apoptosis and Reduction of Intracellular pH Decrease in Retinal Neural Cell Cultures by a Blocker of Carbonic Anhydrase. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(3):1185-1192. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-0555.
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purpose. Methylglyoxal and glyoxal are intermediates of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These substances, as well as hydrogen peroxide, induce retinal neurons to reduce their intracellular pH and augment their production of reactive oxygen species, leading to apoptosis. Because these processes may play a role in diabetic retinopathy, the authors undertook this study to investigate the protective action of dorzolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, on retinal neural cells.
methods. E1A-NR3 cells were incubated with varying concentrations of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and H2O2 for different periods of time in the presence or absence of dorzolamide. Apoptotic changes were determined by cytofluorometry after the cells were incubated with appropriate dyes and antibodies. The parameters studied were DNA strand breaks (TUNEL assay), subdiploid DNA content (sub-G1 assay), annexin V binding, reactive oxygen species intermediates production, active caspase-3, Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (a glycation product), and intracellular pH.
results. Optimal conditions for detection of the cell-protecting effect of dorzolamide were incubation with 0.6 to 0.8 mM glyoxal or methylglyoxal for 5 hours or with 0.1 mM H2O2 for 30 minutes, respectively, followed by 20-hour incubation with fresh medium. All apoptotic changes were reduced in the assays in which dorzolamide was included.
conclusions. Dorzolamide reduced the damage inflicted on retinal neural cells by agents that induced apoptosis and, therefore, can be considered a neuroprotectant.
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