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Jean Stiles, Lynn Guptill-Yoran, George E. Moore, Roman M. Pogranichniy; Effects of λ-Carrageenan on In Vitro Replication of Feline Herpesvirus and on Experimentally Induced Herpetic Conjunctivitis in Cats. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(4):1496-1501. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-1245.
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purpose. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of λ-carrageenan type IV on feline herpesvirus (FHV)-1 in an in vitro model and in experimentally induced conjunctivitis in vaccinated cats.
methods. Standard plaque reduction assay, virus titration, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to assess the effect of carrageenan on FHV-1 in vitro. Eighteen adult specific pathogen-free cats, vaccinated against FHV-1 several months earlier, were used to determine the ocular irritative effects of carrageenan, followed by the effect on FHV-1-induced conjunctivitis. Ocular examinations, virus isolation, and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were evaluated during the study period.
results. When added before virus adsorption, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of carrageenan was 5 μg/mL, and the 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) was 25 μg/mL. When added after virus adsorption, there was no inhibitory effect on plaque formation at any concentration. There was no effect of carrageenan on virus titer. Virus copy numbers assessed by quantitative PCR were significantly but marginally reduced when carrageenan was added before and after virus adsorption. Topical application of carrageenan at 250 μg/mL in cats with FHV-1-induced conjunctivitis resulted in a significant reduction in positive virus isolation samples on day 21 of the study but did not alter clinical signs of disease. There was no adverse effect on PTT values.
conclusions. λ-Carrageenan type IV blocked FHV-1 adsorption in the plaque assay. Carrageenan shortened the time period in which infected cats had positive virus isolation from the conjunctiva but did not alter the clinical course of FHV-1 conjunctivitis in cats.
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