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Brandt J. Wiskur, Michael L. Robinson, Allison J. Farrand, Billy D. Novosad, Michelle C. Callegan; Toward Improving Therapeutic Regimens for Bacillus Endophthalmitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2008;49(4):1480-1487. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.07-1303.
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purpose. Bacillus cereus causes the most virulent and refractory form of endophthalmitis. The authors analyzed the effectiveness of early treatment with vancomycin or gatifloxacin, with or without dexamethasone, for experimental B. cereus endophthalmitis.
methods. Rabbit eyes were injected intravitreally with 100 colony-forming units of B. cereus. At 2, 4, or 6 hours after infection, eyes were injected intravitreally with 0.1 mL gatifloxacin (0.3%), vancomycin (1.0%), either antibiotic plus dexamethasone, dexamethasone alone (1.0%), or PBS. Eyes were analyzed by electroretinography, bacterial quantitation, and antibiotic penetration analysis. Drug toxicity toward Müller cells, retinal pigment epithelium, and cones was also analyzed.
results. Eyes treated at 2 hours with vancomycin or gatifloxacin, with or without dexamethasone, maintained higher ERG amplitudes than the dexamethasone alone and PBS control groups. Eyes treated with antibiotic plus dexamethasone at 6 hours had reduced retinal function compared to antibiotic treatment alone. With the exception of vancomycin with or without dexamethasone at 6 hours, all antibiotic treatments sterilized eyes. Only gatifloxacin reached aqueous concentrations greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration for B. cereus when measured at 8 hours. Neither gatifloxacin nor vancomycin was toxic to retinal cells in vitro.
conclusions. Early intravitreal injection of vancomycin or gatifloxacin improved the therapeutic outcome of B. cereus endophthalmitis. The addition of dexamethasone to antibiotic treatment did not provide a therapeutic benefit over antibiotics alone and appeared to reduce the antibiotic efficacy of vancomycin 6 hours after infection. In this model, delay in treatment past 6 hours significantly reduced the potential for salvaging useful vision.
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