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Chandrassegar Saravanan, Zhiyi Cao, Steven R. Head, Noorjahan Panjwani; Detection of Differentially Expressed Wound-Healing–Related Glycogenes in Galectin-3–Deficient Mice. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(12):5690-5696. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-3359.
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A prior study showed that exogenous galectin-3 (Gal-3) stimulates re-epithelialization of corneal wounds in wild-type (Gal-3+/+) mice but, surprisingly, not in galectin-3–deficient (Gal-3−/−) mice. In an effort to understand why the injured corneas of Gal-3−/− mice are unresponsive to exogenous Gal-3, the present study was designed to determine whether genes encoding the enzymes that regulate the synthesis of glycan ligands of Gal-3 are differentially expressed in Gal-3−/− corneas compared with the Gal-3+/+ corneas.
Glycogene microarray technology was used to identify differentially expressed glycosyltransferases in healing Gal-3+/+ and Gal-3−/− corneas.
Of ∼2000 glycogenes on the array, the expression of 8 was upregulated and that of 14 was downregulated more than 1.3-fold in healing Gal-3−/− corneas. A galactosyltransferase, β3GalT5, which has the ability to synthesize Gal-3 ligands was markedly downregulated in healing Gal-3−/− corneas. The genes for polypeptide galactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcT-3 and -7) that are known to initiate O-linked glycosylation and N-aspartyl-β-glucosaminidase, which participates in the removal of N-glycans, were found to be upregulated in healing Gal-3−/− corneas. Microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR.
Based on the known functions of the differentially expressed glycogenes, it appears that the glycan structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids, synthesized as a result of the differential glycogene expression pattern in healing Gal-3−/− corneas may lead to the downregulation of specific counterreceptors for Gal-3. This may explain, at least in part, why, unlike healing Gal-3+/+ corneas, the healing Gal-3−/− corneas are unresponsive to the stimulatory effect of exogenous Gal-3 on re-epithelialization of corneal wounds.
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