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Emilio Syriani, German Cuesto, Elena Abad, Teresa Pelaez, Arcadi Gual, Jesus Pintor, Miguel Morales, Xavier Gasull; Effects of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor on Aqueous Humor Dynamics. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(8):3833-3839. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2924.
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purpose. It is well known that the small GTPase RhoA modulates actin cytoskeleton and cellular contractility in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Several substances known to contract the TM reduce outflow facility, whereas cellular relaxation is commonly associated with the opposite effect. Inhibitors of the RhoA pathway are under development as antiglaucoma drugs. Here the authors investigate the role of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a known activator of the Rac1 pathway, in cell cytoskeleton, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP).
methods. Effects of PDGF on actin cytoskeleton, Rac1, and AKT activation were tested in preconfluent and confluent bovine TM cells in culture. Rac1 and AKT/P-AKT activation were assessed by Western blot analysis. Trabecular outflow facility was measured in bovine perfused anterior segments. Changes in IOP were measured for up to 6 hours after topical application in the cornea of rabbit eyes by means of a contact tonometer.
results. In TM cells, PDGF (10 ng/mL) activated Rac1 through AKT and induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement with lamellipodia formation. In this sense, lamellipodia formation in TM cells was prevented by NSC23766, a Rac1 inhibitor, and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. In perfused anterior segments, PDGF (100 ng/mL) increased trabecular outflow facility by 26%. In vivo, when topically applied to rabbit corneas, PDGF induced a 20% decrease in IOP (100 ng/mL). This reduction was concentration dependent and presented an EC50 value of 2.7 nM.
conclusions. PDGF, by activating the Rac1 pathway, induces cytoskeletal changes in TM cells that enhance outflow facility. Decreased IOP after PDGF application is likely caused by the facilitation of aqueous humor outflow. Rac1 pathway activation appears to be a positive modulator of outflow facility and an interesting target for decreasing IOP after ocular hypertension.
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