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Johanna K. Zipplies, Stefanie M. Hauck, Stephanie Schoeffmann, Barbara Amann, Christiaan H. van der Meijden, Manfred Stangassinger, Marius Ueffing, Cornelia A. Deeg; Kininogen in Autoimmune Uveitis: Decrease in Peripheral Blood Stream versus Increase in Target Tissue. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010;51(1):375-382. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4094.
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Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an incurable disease affecting the inner eye that leads to blindness, through activated T cells that pass the blood–retinal barrier and destroy the retina. Serum markers are a desirable choice for monitoring development of disease, as serum is easy accessible and the markers could serve to predict the beginning of disease or an imminent relapse.
In this study, serum proteomes (depleted of high-abundance serum proteins) of horses with ERU and healthy controls were compared with the 2-D DIGE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) technique to identify differentially expressed proteins. The expression pattern of a candidate protein in retina and vitreous was validated by Western blots and immunohistochemistry.
Ten differentially expressed proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Five proteins—IgM, IgG4 hc, serotransferrin, α-2HS-glycoprotein, and complement factor B—were upregulated in the uveitic state, whereas the five proteins albumin, apolipoprotein A-IV and H, IgG5 hc, and high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) showed a significantly lower expression in sera of uveitis cases. Of interest, kininogen was significantly upregulated in the target tissues vitreous and retina. HK is a plasma protein with multiple physiological functions, with an important role in inflammation and promoting neovascularization. Most interesting is the as of yet unaddressed association of HK with uveitis. Immunohistochemistry showed coexpression of kininogen and VEGF in inflamed eyes.
Since neovascularization plays a major role in the pathogenesis of uveitis, the identification of a proangiogenic factor in the retina presents an important finding and may contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of uveitis.
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